Sweat Rate, Sweat Sodium Losses, and Body Composition in Professional Male Soccer Players in Southwest Colombia

Milton Fabian Suarez-Ortegón, Maria del Pilar Zea-León, Angelica Maria Astudillo-Gironza, Silverio Garzón, Gustavo Fabian Portela, Oscar Daniel Villarreal-Nieto

Producción: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva


Background and Objective: Dehydration and hyperhydration impact athletes’ performance. Exploring the fluid balance concerning body composition might help estimate individual hydration requirements. This area of research, particularly regarding sodium losses, has been relatively understudied. We evaluated the sweat rate (SR), sweat sodium losses, and their relationship with body composition in professional soccer players in Cali, Colombia. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male players, aged 24.3 (±5.2) years, from the Colombian main soccer league, underwent high-intensity training at 32 °C (with a relative humidity of 79%). The outcome variables included SR, calculated using weight loss and fluid intake; forearm sweat sodium concentration (FSCC), measured through the direct ion-selective electrode method; and estimated the predicted whole sweat sodium loss (PWSSL) in mmol. Predictor variables (body mass, fat, and muscle masses) were estimated using the Deborah Kerr anthropometry method. The association between predictors and outcomes was assessed using linear regression. Results: The mean FSCC, PWSSL, and SR were 26.7 ± 11.3 mmol/L, 43 ± 15.9 mmol/L, and 1.7 ± 0.5 L/h, respectively. Body mass positively predicted FSCC in unadjusted and age/fat-mass-adjusted models [Beta 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–2.18, p = 0.006], and continued related to FSCC after adjustment for muscle mass with marginal significance [Beta 0.85, 95% CI −0.02 to 1.73, p = 0.056]. Muscle mass was associated with the PWSSL in unadjusted and age/fat-mass-adjusted models [Beta 2.42, 95% CI 0.58–4.26, p = 0.012] and sustained an association with marginal statistical significance after adjustment for body mass [Beta 1.86, 95% CI −0.35 to 4.09, p = 0.097]. Conclusions: Under hot tropical weather conditions, FSCC was relatively low among the players. Body mass was better associated with the FSSC, and muscle mass better related to the PWSSL. Body and muscle masses could be regarded as potential factors to be explored in the estimation of individual sodium needs. However, further studies are required to validate and contrast our findings.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo113
Páginas (desde-hasta)1-12
Número de páginas12
PublicaciónMedicina (Lithuania)
EstadoPublicada - 07 ene. 2024


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